なら (nara) Meaning Japanese [JLPT N4]

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なら (nara) Meaning Japanese [JLPT N4]

The expression なら (nara) means if, in case that, if that is the case.

なら is one of the many Conditional forms in Japanese. Other conditional forms are:

  • Form in ば
  • たら

While each of these forms can be translated as if, each of these is used in different situations and with different meanings.

なら is an abbreviation for ならば, which in turn is the hypothetical form (()(てい)) of なり

In this post we learn more about the meaning of なら, how it is formed, and when なら is used through real example sentences.


How なら is formed

なら can follow nouns, verbs, and adjectives. For verbs and adjectives in な it is possible to add の before なら:

Verb+(の)+なら
Adjective[い]+(の)+なら
Adjective[な]+(の)+なら
Noun+なら
Adding の makes the condition stronger (adds emphasis to the 'if ... ')

Let's now look at some examples of conjugations.

なら Verb conjugation

()
()のなら

Conjugation of adjectives in い for なら

(さむ)
(さむ)のなら

Conjugation of adjectives in な for なら

()()
()()なら

なら Noun conjugation

デザート
デザートなら

Connective Particles - 接続助詞

なら is a connective particle ((せつ)(ぞく)(じょ)() setsuzoku joshi). Connective particles in Japanese are most often used in combination with verbs and adjectives to extend their meaning and relationship.

Other connective particles in Japanese are:

How and when to use なら

The main use of なら is for hypothetical situations. なら is translated as if or when in these cases depending on the type of condition.

なら indicates that something is possible if only a certain condition is true.

なら is also called "contextual particle": this is because it is equivalent to if you are talking about this, then ... or if this is the context, then ....

ここは(きん)(えん)です。煙草(たばこ)()うなら、(そと)()てください。

Smoking is prohibited here. If you want to smoke, please go outside.

なら expresses an assumption on the part of the speaker. It is meant to indicate that if what I think is actually true, then I will behave in a certain way.

(ゆう)(がた)なら()けると(おも)います。

If it's evening I think I can come.

Under what conditions can なら be used

なら does not presuppose some temporal order of the two situations being compared (differently from たら). For this reason, you can use なら to indicate consequences for both past and future conditions.

()くなら()かる。

When you go then you will understand.

In this example we see a future condition: if you go (future) then you will understand it.

もし(わたし)にもっとお(かね)があったなら、そのペを()ったであろ​​うに。

If I had more money, I would have bought that pen.

This second example instead shows a past condition: if I had more money (past) then I would have bought that pen.

You cannot use なら if the expressed condition is sure to happen.

In fact, なら indicates a guess: the situation is uncertain and may not happen as expected. For this reason, なら is not used for sure conditions.

An example of a sentence with a wrong use of なら is the following:

(れん)(しゅう)をするなら、(かん)()()くのが(じょう)()になる。

If you practice, you will become better at writing kanji. (⛔️)

In this case, becoming good at something is the natural and direct result of practicing, it is not a hypothetical condition. For this reason, the use of なら is unnatural.

Another wrong example is the following:

(あき)になるなら

If it becomes autumn (⛔️)

In fact, becoming autumn is not a hypothetical event, it is certain that sooner or later it will become autumn. Again, なら cannot be used.

なら to make suggestions or requests

なら can also be used to make suggestions or requests. In this case, the typical translation is if you're going to do ..., then ....

()るなら()むな。

Don't drink when driving.

In this example, we ask you not to drink ()むな in case you drive ()る.

(わたし)があなたならそんなことはしない。

If I were you I wouldn't do that.

なら at the end of the sentence

In spoken language, なら is commonly used at the end of a sentence to indicate regret or to express disappointment about the situation:

今日(きょう)(きん)(よう)()ならなあ。

If only today were Friday.

Examples of なら

(おとこ)()まれたなら(すす)()(がい)(みち)などない。

If you were born a man there is no option but moving forward.

それなら(はなし)(はや)い。

That makes it easy.

カメラを()いたいなら、(あき)()(ばら)()った(ほう)がいいです。

If you want to buy a camera, it's best to go to Akihabara.

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