The form がいる (
ga iru) means
to be in a place.
It is the verb to be that expresses existence and refers to living creatures, unlike がある which describes inanimate objects instead.
In this post we are going to see how to use がいる and what meaning it conveys, through real examples of its use.
How いる is formed in Japanese
The form consists of:
- the particle が following the subject in the sentence
- the verb いる transcribed in kanji 居る,
bereferring to people and animals
Recently it has been discussed that plants are also sentient beings and therefore いる and not ある should be used.
In colloquial speech, the particle が is often omitted.
いる is an Ichidan verb; the various forms of the verb are obtained by removing the syllable る and adding the suffixes.
There's a tortoise there!
There is nobody.
There was a friend.
As we will see in this post, the forms がある and がいる also translate the
verb to have.
The previous sentence can also mean:
- I had friends
- I had a friend
Mayumi was not there.
がいる exist, be in a place
がいる translates the verb
'there + be, indicates the fact of
being in a place and is also called the verb to be of existence.
It includes all living beings in creation.
The other verb translating to be is だ／です called the verb to be of identification.
There are 3 giraffes in that zoo.
In this sentence we find one of the numeric suffixes or counters: 頭
tō used to count big animals.
Polite form of がいる
The polite form of いる is います.
Who is in the room?
There is only the teacher.
When we find だけ
only in the sentence, we do not use the particle が.
いる expressing possession
いる and ある also translate the aspect of possession expressed by the verb
- は or には the particles describing the possessor
- が refers to the thing possessed
Example using がある
That man is courageous.
Literally: That man has courage.
Example using がいる
Keiko has two children.
Examples of がいる
Mum is in the office.
I have Indian friends.
There are many squirrels in this park.