すぎる (sugiru) Meaning Japanese Grammar - Over Do

Author Anna Baffa Volpe for article 'すぎる (sugiru) Meaning Japanese Grammar - Over Do'

Anna Baffa Volpe

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すぎる (sugiru) Meaning Japanese Grammar - Over Do

The verb すぎる (sugiru) means to exceed, to surpass, to go beyond.

It can be used as single ordinary verb or combined with other verbs according to a particular structure we are going to analyze in this post.

How すぎる is formed

すぎる has its own kanji ()ぎる and it can be singly used in a sentence.


Passing the age of 18.


The storm has passed.

The particular structure we are introducing is used with verbs and adjectives.

Verb base B2 or Base in ます+すぎる
Adjective in い without い+すぎる
Adjective in な without な+すぎる

How and when すぎる is used

すぎる is used in Japanese to indicate that the degree of actions or states is excessive and it goes beyond the ordinary state of things.

It is not always beneficial to overdo things, to exaggerate, so we find すぎる in sentences with a negative meaning or expressing undesirable states.

Sugiru with Verbs

The structure with Ichidan verbs is simple: we have to remove the kana る at the end of the verb and replace it with すぎる.


()べすぎる: eat to much


I put too much salt in my food and it became too salty.

In the case of the Godan verbs, we have to change the last syllable from column う to the equivalent in column い and add すぎる.


()みすぎる: drink too much

The irregular verb する becomes しすぎる.


I ordered too much food and couldn't eat it all.


I think this table takes up too much space.


His biggest flaw is that he talks too much.


I have too much to do!

From a Japanese YouTube video


Here are 4 things to do after eating too much.



The interesting grammatical structures we find in the sentence are:

  • ()()ぎた the verbal base + 過ぎた past tense of the plain form: I ate too much
  • ()()ぎた(あと)に: the past tense of the plain form in た/だ + (あと)に : after eating too much
  • するべき: the dictionary form + べき: what we should do


It happens to everyone, doesn't it? We end up overeating unintentionally.



て form of the verb + しまう: to end up doing something

Adjectives in い

The form with the Adjectives in "i" (い) is obtained removing the last vowel い and adding すぎる.



The sake was so delicious and I drank many cups.


I can't sleep because the room next door is too noisy.


The new theory is too difficult for ordinary people.

The form with すぎる and the adjectives can be replaced by ()(じょう)に〜だ。


It's extremely difficult.


He complains that the room is too small.


It's never too late to change.


It's too cold to go on a picnic today.

A comment on a video on YouTube

Too wonderful!
()()らしい, the Adjective in い: wonderful, magnificent


Too wonderful!

Adjectives in な

In the case of the Adjectives in "na" (な) we simply remove the kana な and add すぎる.



This job is too hard for me to do anymore.


I have too much free time today.

(ひま)hima na, is an adjective meaning free, not busy and is therefore joined to すぎる without the な.

It can be translated using an adjective: I'm free or as I have free time.


I think he is a bit too impatient.

〜に()ぎない: it is nothing more than

〜に()ぎない is another structure commonly used in Japanese consisting of:

  • the particle に
  • the verb ()ぎる exceed, surpass in the negative form ()ぎない or ()ぎません: it doesn't surpass ⇨ it is no more than
Verb+だけ+ ()ぎない
Adjective in い+だけ+ ()ぎない
Adjective in な+だけ+ ()ぎない
Noun+だけ+ ()ぎない

だけ means only and is often omitted.

The meaning of this expression is it is nothing more than, it is simply, it is merely.

It is an expression used to limit and reduce the importance of what has just been said and states that it is nothing more than that.

This reality is just an illusion created by the brain.
TED トーク: Ted Talks


This reality is just an illusion created by the brain.


It is only a temporary solution to the problem.