The verb すぎる (
sugiru) means to exceed, to surpass, to go beyond.
It can be used as single ordinary verb or combined with other verbs according to a particular structure we are going to analyze in this post.
How すぎる is formed
すぎる has its own kanji 過ぎる and it can be singly used in a sentence.
Passing the age of 18.
The storm has passed.
The particular structure we are introducing is used with verbs and adjectives.
How and when すぎる is used
すぎる is used in Japanese to indicate that the degree of actions or states is excessive and it goes beyond the ordinary state of things.
It is not always beneficial to overdo things, to exaggerate, so we find すぎる in sentences with a negative meaning or expressing undesirable states.
Sugiru with Verbs
The structure with Ichidan verbs is simple: we have to remove the kana る at the end of the verb and replace it with すぎる.
食べすぎる: eat to much
I put too much salt in my food and it became too salty.
In the case of the Godan verbs, we have to change the last syllable from column う to the equivalent in column い and add すぎる.
飲みすぎる: drink too much
The irregular verb する becomes しすぎる.
I ordered too much food and couldn't eat it all.
I think this table takes up too much space.
His biggest flaw is that he talks too much.
I have too much to do!
From a Japanese YouTube video
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Adjectives in い
The form with the Adjectives in "i" (い) is obtained removing the last vowel い and adding すぎる.
The sake was so delicious and I drank many cups.
I can't sleep because the room next door is too noisy.
The new theory is too difficult for ordinary people.
The form with すぎる and the adjectives can be replaced by 非常に〜だ。
It's extremely difficult.
He complains that the room is too small.
It's never too late to change.
It's too cold to go on a picnic today.
Adjectives in な
In the case of the Adjectives in "na" (な) we simply remove the kana な and add すぎる.
This job is too hard for me to do anymore.
I have too much free time today.
hima na, is an adjective meaning free, not busy and is therefore joined to すぎる without the な.
It can be translated using an adjective:
I'm free or as
I have free time.
I think he is a bit too impatient.